Sunday, September 11, 2016


1.0              Introduction                                                                                                              
1.1              Background to the Study
Modern Technology in communication is no doubt turned the entire world into a “Global Village”. But as it is, technology like two sides of a coin, bring with it both the negative and positive sides. It helps people to be better informed, enlightened, and keeping abreast with world developments. Technology exposes mankind to a better way of doing things.          Meanwhile, human history is characterized with conflict. What therefore differs is the approach or strategy adopted to resolve or manage a particular conflict situation. The effectiveness or otherwise of the management of conflict is itself largely depend on how the causes of the conflict have been understood and resolved. Okoh (2005).

It is not possible to have good human relations without communication. An effective communication is required, not only for maintaining human relations, but also for achieving good business performance. In addition, practical experience shows that there is no communication without conflicts. Sometimes, conflicts can be useful, as they help to make correct decision, although they might represent a huge obstacle to an organization and its business. Ajah (2007).
Conflict therefore refers to any contradictions arising from differences in the interests, ideas, ideologies, orientation and precipitous tendencies of the people concerned. These contradictions are inherent at all levels of social and economic interactions of human race. It may therefore exist at the individual, group, institutional, regional, national and international levels. Conflict is thus a pervasive phenomenon in human relationships and has been seen as the “basic unit for understanding social existence. Nnoli, (2008).
Social conflict occurs “when two or more actors oppose each other in social interaction, reciprocally exerting social power in an effort to attain scarce or incompatible goals and prevent the opponent from attaining them”. Social conflicts constitute one of the major recurring problems bedeviling the socio-economic and political landscape in Africa and Nigeria in particular.
Achieving a sustainable development has become a difficult task for developing nations, in spite of efforts by development experts to bring about desired development. The term “sustainable development was brought into common use by the world commission on Environment and development (WECD) in its 1987 seminar report entitled “our common future”.
In a broader and encompassing definition, sustainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
The scope of conflict resolution covers economic, ecological social and political dimensions to development. The economic component consists of optimizing the use of limited resources and the management of material and energy saving technologies. It provides for the integrity of biological and physical sciences and oriented to human development, preserve stability of public and internal systems. Abah and Okwori, (2005).
Many factors prevent students from direct and open communication, such as active media like memo, letter, billboard, e.t.c communication the result is at high risk of conflict situations. If there is direct communication with the use of social media like facebook, whatsapp, twitter e.t.c applied effectively by students on time, the conflict can be avoided, or its impact can be minimized.
Conflicts happen each day and their successful management is a key element of organizational, institutional and managerial success. In addition, conflict is a process where a person deliberately makes an effort to prevent efforts of another person with an opposing action, which will result in frustrating the other Person to achieve his goals or satisfy his interests. Robbins (1995).
Institutional conflict occurs, as actors engage in activities that are incompatible with those of colleagues within their network, members of other institution, or unaffiliated individuals who utilize the services or products of the institution. The same author conceptualizes conflict as an interactive process manifested in incompatibility, disagreement, or dissonance within or between social entities (individual groups, organizations, e.t.c). It has been argued that no meaningful development can take place in an atmosphere of disunity, rancor and conflicts. Rahim (2002).
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