1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The effect of standard of standard costing on profitability has been a problem to manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The standard costing as a tool for either improving or not improving profitability. Unlike its contemporaries in the field of science, it deals with human beings and calculation significant information.
Lucey (2002) defines standard costing as a technique which establishes pre-determined cost estimates of the cost of products and services and then compares these pre-determined costs with actual costs as they incurred. Standard cost represent am estimated or pre determines total cost of product per unit for an organization. Adeniji (2009) argues that the process of estimating the total cost of production per unit is described as standard costing technique.
Standard costing as a long established concept is the management function of planning and control. In effect, yardstick has been of vital importance for planning and control exercise. As a matter of fact, problems associated with production and earning a profit was recognized for many years before the concept of standard costing was invented. Standard costing appeared in the early twentieth century when transaction volumes were overwhelming the record keeping system in the use at that time. Since then, prevalent use of computer systems and automated data entry systems have reduced the need for standard costing, though not entirely eliminated.
These standard costs reveals goals, spur actions and efforts for effective management and equally provide checks such that exceptional profit oriented goal performance can be achieved and the reserve adequate punishment to be exercised for bad performance. Standard cost cause appraisal to be made over production facilities and form management intentions and capabilities and is a first step strength and weakness appraisal. These led to the preference of standard costing system in 1920’s. it was brought into the system such that total variances might be accumulated as well as detailed variances. These steps gave rise to formal expression that significant costs were not actual and historical cost but standard or planning cost and their variances.
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