1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Credit management in our banking sector today has taken a different dimension from what it used to be. The banking industry has adopted a lot of strategies in checking credit management in order to stay in business. Thu the banking industry in Nigeria has lost large amount of money as a result of the turning source of credit exposure and taken interest rate position. Nigerian banks are being required in the market because of their competence to provide transaction efficiency, market knowledge and funding capability. To perform these roles, the banks act as the most important participants in their transaction process of which they use their own balance sheet to make it easier and making sure that their associated risk is absorbed.
Credit extension is essential function of banks and the bank management strive to satisfy the legitimate credit needs of the community it tends to serve. This credit advances by banks as a debtor to the depositor requires exercising prudence in handling the funds of depositors. The Central Bank of Nigeria established a credit act in 1990 which empowered banks to render returns to the credit risk management system in respect to its entire customers with aggregate outstanding debit balance of one million naira and above (Ijaiya G.T and Abdulraheem A (2000). This made Nigerian banks to universally embark on upgrading their control system and risk management because this coincidental activity is recognized as the industry physiological weakness to financial risk.
The researcher, a New yolk-based, said that 40% of Nigerian banks that made up exchange rate value in west Africa, has reduced the operating lending as a result of bad debts which hit more than $10 billion in 2009 and this has led to a tied-up questioning asset that is holding almost half of Nigerian banks. The central bank of Nigeria fired eight chief executive officers and set aside $ 4.1 billion in order to bail out almost 10 of the country‟s lenders. The reform which was introduced by Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) in 2010 has made Nigerian banks resume lending supporting assets management companies and set up the requirement which will allow Nigerian banks make full provision for bad debts that will boost the market.
The banks identify the existence of destructive debtors in the banking system whose method involved responding to their debt obligations in some banks and tried to have contract of new debts in other banks. Banks are trying to make the database of credit risk management system more open for them to be more functional and recognized as to enable banks to enquire or render statutory returns on borrowers. There are some banking practices which increase the risks in the bank and cannot be easily changed. This result still leads to the question: what are the possible ways that will help make Nigerian banks manage their credit risks?
Credit risk management helps credit expert to know when to accept a credit applicant as to avoid destroying the banks reputation and making decision in order to explore unavoidable credit risk which gives more profit. Controlling a risk results in encouraging rewards that give internal audit more technical support service and customized training in banks or financial institutions. This research is presented to outline, find, investigate and report different state of techniques in risk management in the banking industry.
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